无机纳米线

无机纳米线的直径可为 1-50 纳米,长度可任意选择,最长可达微米。它们具有有趣的电子、光学和其他特性,未来可能用于将微小元件连接到小规模电路中。

无机纳米线

Inorganic materials cover the entire span of the periodic table. Examples range from elemental semiconductors (silicon, germanium), metals (copper, aluminum), to compounds such as gallium arsenide, and all kinds of oxides and nitrides. In the last three decades, these inorganic materials have been successfully grown in the form of thin films with a film thickness as small as 1 nm and as high as several microns.

Thin films are ubiquitous in products all around us, including computers, smartphones, lasers, solar panels, and flat panel displays. Recently there is interest in growing these same materials in the form of one-dimensional nanowires rather than as two-dimensional thin films.

Inorganic nanowires may have diameters of 1-50 nm and any desirable length, perhaps up to a micrometer. They offer interesting electronic, optical and magnetic properties, and may be used in the future to link tiny components into small scale circuits.  The properties of nanowires are projected to allow improved performance in existing products as well as development of entirely new products.

Nanowires of silicon and germanium are useful in making future generation computer chips and memory devices. A variety of oxides such as zinc oxide, tin oxide, and indium tin oxide are now grown in the form of nanowires. Zinc oxide is being considered for ultraviolet (UV) lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs). A variety of nitrides such as gallium nitride and aluminum nitride have become the standard for use in many solid state lighting applications.

Silicon Nanowires Observed With An Electron Microscope. Image credit: bdsklo/bigstock.com

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